Tse, S.K., Wong, M.Y., Laing, V., Wu, K.F., Tsui, P.F., To, H. & Lam, L.S. (2020). Teaching and Learning of Chinese Language: Principles and Strategies to cater for learning diversity. Journal of International Han-character Education Research, 3(1), 37-57.

教法, 幼兒中文, 第二語文學習

Title

Teaching and Learning of Chinese Language: Principles and Strategies to cater for learning diversity
中文教與學:處理學生學習差異的原則和策略

Journal

Journal of International Han-character Education Research
漢字與漢字教育研究

Year

2020

Vol

Vol. 3
No. 1
pp37-57

Author

Shek Kam TSE, Man Ying WONG, Victor LAING, Kam Fong WU, Pik Fong TSUI, Heiken TO, Lu Sai LAM

Abstract

Majority of non-Chinese speaking young students (NCS) are studied in mainstream kindergartens. They are of ethnic groups, for instance, Pakistani, Indian, and Nepalese who are new immigrants or offspring of immigrants in the past. The Equal Opportunities Commission encourages the inclusion of NCS that study together with Chinese speaking students, for the sake of social inclusion in the long run. In recent years, the Education Bureau has allocated more resources in supporting NCS for early adaption to the local education system. However, its effect had yet to take effect. It is believed that managing individual learning differences is one of the major challenges.

The Chinese proficiency of NCS is generally lag behind of those with Chinese as mother tongue. Therefore, problems and complications arise as a result of the two groups of students studying in the same environment. Even among NCS, there are new immigrants and those born in Hong Kong, and they are dissimilar. While there are obvious cultural differences between ethnic minorities and local Hong Kong students, teachers are faced with challenges in handling these disparities. NCS learn Chinese in Hong Kong is not an easy task.

Regarding all these above, the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust in collaboration with three Universities and two social welfare institutions, initiated the “C-for-Chinese” project. It supported NCS learning Chinese, as well as facilitated early social inclusion. The project developed differentiated school-based curriculum, differentiated teaching and learning materials, differentiated pedagogies and assessment, and varied support measures to kindergartens. It is able to alleviate the problem, and bridging the learning differences. This paper detailed research theories and design, data collection, research findings, and analysis of successful cases. The findings of this research could be applied in different settings internationally and be globally referenced.

香港有不少非華語幼兒, 包括巴基斯坦, 印度, 尼泊爾等新舊移民。 為提倡平等教育的理念, 香港平等機會委員會建議非華語學生和華語學生同一學校上課, 讓他們儘快融入香港社會。 因此, 大部分非華語幼兒就讀香港本地主流幼稚園。 儘管香港教育當局亦投入不少的資源, 協助非華語幼兒適應香港的教育, 可是效果未能立竿見影, 其中一個最大的困難, 就是處理學習差異。 非華語幼兒的中文能力未能達到母語水準。 當他們與華語幼兒一起上課學習中文, 產生不少困難。 此外, 非華語幼兒的背景也不同, 有些是新移民, 亦有本地出生的少數族裔, 兩者存在很大差異。 此外, 少數族裔的文化和香港的文化亦有很大的不同, 老師和幼兒在學與教兩方面都要處理這些差異, 因此, 非華語學生在香港學習中文極不容易。 為解決上述的困難, 香港賽馬會慈善信託基金與三所大學及兩間社福機構, 推展「賽馬會友趣學中文」計畫, 協助非華語學生有效地學習中文, 早日融入社會。 團隊設計了分層校本課程, 分層校本教材, 分層教學法, 分層教具, 分層評估, 和多層教學支持, 處理學習差異。 非華語學生參與了研究計畫共三年, 研究團隊測量他們三年的中文成績, 結果顯示三年都有顯著的進步, 證實分層教學系統有助解決學習差異的難題。 本研究詳述研究理論和設計, 搜集資料, 研究結果, 並分析有效的案例。 這些研究發現均可以在世界各地推廣和應用。