Loh E.K.Y., Tse S.K. and Tsui S.K.(2013). A study of the effectiveness of a school-based Chinese characters curriculum for Non-Chinese speaking kindergarteners: Hong Kong experience, Han Character and Classical written language Education, 30, 277-323. doi: 10.15670/HACE.2013.30.1.277.

第二語文學習, 幼兒中文, 課程

Title

A study of the effectiveness of a school-based Chinese characters curriculum for Non-Chinese speaking kindergarteners: Hong Kong experience
非華語幼兒漢字課程的成效研究:香港的經驗

Journal

Han-Character and Classical written language Education
漢字漢文教育

Year

2013

Vol

Vol. 30
pp277-323

Author

Elizabeth.Ka Yee LOH, Shek Kam TSE, Sze Ki TSUI

Abstract

The number of non-Chinese speaking (NCS) young children learning Chinese in Hong Kong is increasing year by year.Chineselanguage teachers in kindergarten badly in need of Chinese characters teaching materials, teaching methods and assessment designed especially for these young children. This study with reference to Integrative Perceptual Approach (IPA), second language learning theory, HongKong early childhood or all language development research results, and to consider the learning needs and difficulties of these NCS young children, designs a set of school-based the Chinese character curriculum, teaching materials and teaching methods.
In order to prove the effectiveness of this curriculum, textbooks and teaching methods, this study invited a kindergarten which mainly serves NCS young children to participate in a teaching experiment. There are a total of 35 NCS young children (studying in high or low class), and 2 of their Chinese language teachers participated. All young children receive pre-, mid- and post-tests, and the items include “matching pictures to characters”, “matching characters to pictures”, “matching characters to sounds”, “audio mental vocabulary”, as well as “free writing Chinese characters”, to evaluate how well they identify Chinese characters’ shape, sound and meaning, as well as the ability to write Chinese characters. In addition, the low retention rate of NCS young children is the mainly focus of this study too. As a result, a longitude study has been conducted to monitor the Chinese character learning performance of low class NCS young children one year after the end of this study (conducted two additional post-tests).
Research findings (including mean, effect size and paired samples T-test) confirm a significant learning progress of these young children, particularly in “matching pictures to characters” and “matching characters to sounds”. The results prove that the curriculum is effective to enhance NCS young children’s Chinese listening and speaking ability, and ability to recognize Chinese characters. For the ability to write Chinese characters, most of the young children in this study can write some Chinese characters to express themselves independently. This also proves that this curriculum play a role in the initial development of NCS young children’s ability to write Chinese characters.
Longitude study found that the Chinese language ability of NCS young children in low class develop continuously even after the end of this study.
The problem of low retention rate seems to be resolved. Furthermore, their performance in “matching characters to sounds”, audio mental lexicons, total score of audio mental lexicon, and total scores of the whole test are higher than those in high class. The results further indicate that this curriculum has remarkable effect to enhance NCS young children’s Chinese characters ability, resolve the problem of low retention rate, and also state that the early the children learn Chinese characters, the better performance they will have.

香港學習中文的非華語幼兒人數正逐年增加。幼稚園的中文教師極需要一些特別為這些幼兒學習漢字而設計的教材、教學法和評估,以應付他們的學習需求。本研究參考「綜合高效識字」課程、第二語言學習理論、香港幼兒口語發展的研究結果,並考慮非華語幼兒的學習需要和困難,設計了一套校本的中文識字課程、教材和教學法。為了印證這套課程、教材和教學法的成效,本研究邀請了一所專門接收非華語學童的幼稚園參與教學研究,參加的高低班學童合共35人,加上他們的原任中文教師共2人。所有幼兒都接受前測、中測和後測,評估項目包括看圖選字、看字選圖、看字讀音、口述心理詞彙,以及自由書寫漢字,以評鑒他們對辨認漢字的形、音、義,以及書寫漢字的能力。此外,為針對幼兒遺忘率高的問題,本研究特別以低班幼兒作為研究物件,於本計畫結束後,再進行了為其一年的追緃研究(分別是後測二和後測三)。研究資料(包括平均分、增值率和配對樣本檢驗)發現低班和高班幼兒在看圖選字和看字讀音的進步最顯著,其他項目包括看字選圖、口述心理詞彙等有明顯進步。研究結果證明本課程對提升幼兒聽說中文和認讀漢字的能力成效顯著。書寫漢字方面,高低班的幼兒大都能獨立書寫一些漢字詞彙來表達自己的意思。這證明了本研究對初步發展幼兒書寫漢字的能力發揮了作用。追縱研究發現,就讀低班的幼兒在後測三的表現顯示他們在計畫結束後,識字能力仍然持續發展,解決了遺忘率高的問題;而且他們在看字讀音和口述心理詞彙(包括家庭和學校)、心理詞彙總分以及全卷總分,成績都較高班幼兒高。這個結果除了說明本計畫於識字和認讀漢字有極佳的教學效果,能有效解決幼兒遺忘率高的問題外,亦說明了幼兒愈早進行識字學習,他們的識字能力便愈高。