Tse, S. K. (2011). Effective Learning of Chinese Characters through Discerning and Combining Character Components. Han-Character and Classical written language Education, 26, 45-62. doi: 10.15670/HACE.2011.26.1.045.

識字, 教法

Title

Effective Learning of Chinese Characters through Discerning and Combining Character Components
愉快有效的漢字部件識字法

Journal

Han-Character and Classical written language Education
漢字漢文教育

Year

2011

Vol

Vol. 26
pp45-62

Author

Shek Kam TSE

Abstract

The basic units of written Chinese are ideographic symbols called characters, made up of components and strokes. Faced with the very large number of Chinese characters, it would seem impossible for learners ever to learn them all. This paper describes a way of helping young children
learn Chinese characters through systematically discerning, recognizing and combining the component elements of characters. The theoretical
underpinnings of the learning method have been presented in detail. The effectiveness of the approach is examined in an exploratory, but carefully conducted study in a Grade 1 class of students in one Hong Kong primary school. None of the children had received any prior formal tuition in Chinese character learning. A pre-test was carried out to establish the students’ baseline awareness of character components, recognition of common characters and components, and ability to identify real and potentially valid characters from a series of actual and pseudo-real
characters. Following a period of instruction using the proposed teaching strategy, the learners were given the test again and the impact of the teaching was assessed. It was found that teaching students how to discern and recognize characters and the elements and strokes used to make up characters enhanced both an awareness of character components and a way of reading and learning unfamiliar characters.

本研究主要探索「綜合高效識字法」的「部件識字」,研究的主要目的是瞭解「部件識字法」對漢字初學者的識字成效。本文闡述了部件識字的學習理論、教學實驗和教學應用示例。「部件識字法」以部件作為主導,讓初學者透過認識常用的漢字部件,更容易地去學習漢字。研究以香港一所小學的一年級學生為對象,屬於漢字初學者。他們需要接受部件識字的學習。研究員利用自行設計的識字卷為研究工具,比較前測及後測的成績,以評估「部件識字法」的實踐成效。研究結果顯示,「部件識字」教學法能有效地提升學生的識字能力。學生通過部件識字的教學活動,學會利用77個常用部件,互相分拆或整合,從而學會大量新字。學生的識字增值率,反映了「部件識字法」能有效地增加學生對漢字的敏感度及識字量。
過往,不少的西方的學術文獻都指出漢文是一種難學的語言,而漢字則是難學的文字。究其原因,是語文教師未能掌握學習漢字的有效方法,而漢字的教學未有一套有系統的教材、教學法和完整的識字課程。傳統的漢字教學法,著重大量而重複抄寫、背誦課文和默寫,學生討厭學習漢字。研究員與香港大學的研究團隊,在過去二十多年,研究有效的識字教學法,並得到香港政府資助大量的研究經費和支持,建立「綜合高效識字教學法」(下稱「高效識字」)(謝錫金,2002)。「高效識字」的研究成果,曾在不同的學術研究刊物上發表。並獲得香港百多所小學採用為初小的中文識字教材。本文報告「高效識字」一個有效的漢字教與學的方法:「部件識字法」,並展示部件識字在香港一所小校施行的結果和成效。